Acute inflammation: triggers

Acute inflammation is a protective mechnism that occurs when some infective agents enters the body.


• Infection: bacterial, fungal, viral.
• Infestation: parasites.
• Microbial toxins.
• All those above-said agents works via TLR, cytoplasmic receptors.
• Tissue necrosis- ischemia, trauma, physical & chemical injury. Molecules like uric acid, purine metabolites, ATP, HMGB-1, DNA out of nucleus released from a necrosed cell are important triggers.
• Hypoxia(HIF-1 alpha).
• VEGF(actually one of the mediators).
• Foreign bodies.
• Immune reactions or hypersensitive reaction directed against self antigens, cause injury to self tissue.
Inflammation is a double edged sword that is protective but also cause injury to the self tissue if not controlled properly.

After some infective agents and the triggers ativate the mechanism of acute infection, some events takes place sequencially. They will be described in subsequent posts of the category: Inflammation.